The Rock Island County Sheriff's Office was established in 1833 when Rock Island County was duly commissioned and Benjamin F. Pike was elected the first Sheriff. A detention facility began construction in 1836 and was originally located at the southwest corner of the present-day courthouse.
The detention facility was replaced in 1920 with the construction of a separate jail, which stood across from the courthouse at 215 15th Street.
In 1986, a new jail was completed at its present location of 1317 Third Avenue and named the Rock Island County Correctional Center. Then in 1999, work began on an annex to the Jail. This structure, The Rock Island County Justice Center, was completed and opened at the end of March of 2001. Since the new jail began operation in 1986, only three inmates have escaped from the facility.
Presently, staff at the Sheriff's Office totals 185, which includes 60 correctional officers, 65 sworn deputies, 31 bailiffs, 12 telecommunicators and a civilian support staff of 27.